Sunday, December 7, 2008

Coping With the Death of a Child

Originally Published: 6/14/93

A hundred years ago, death and dying were events shared by the family of the deceased or terminally ill. If a person didn't die at home, he or she was likely indigent, mentally ill and confined to an asylum, or imprisoned. Today, the dying are likely to be sequestered from their family in intensive care units that only allow one adult to visit with the patient for a very short time - "being strong" and withholding a public display of emotion at funerals is encouraged, bottling up feelings that may burst forth on an anniversary or birthday years later.

As a result, dying is much more emotionally traumatic than it needs to be, for both the clip_image004patient and his or her family. This is especially true for the parents and siblings of a child who is terminally ill or has recently passed. In the event of a terminal illness where a child is cared for in the home, a normal home life must be maintained, to the greatest extent possible, for the benefit of both the ill child and the family.

“The worst thing we can do to the terminally ill child and the rest of the family is to make a morgue out of the house while the child is still living. Where there is laughter and joy, shared love, and little pleasures, the day-to-day difficulties are much easier to bear.” 

In her book "On Death and Dying," Elizabeth Kubler-Ross suggests making the child's siblings a part of the dying process to help them understand and accept the impending death of a brother or sister. "They may help to make yarn a tape recorder with favorite music, or they can serve one meal a day as long as the little patient can still eat." Also, tip-toeing around the house, speaking in hushed tones, and avoiding the sick room can be detrimental to the well-being of the patient. [1]

Children who are not included in the last few weeks of a sibling's life will often begin to manifest abnormal behavior, especially if the parents try to ease their own conscience by lavishing the sick child with gifts or attention. Citing the case of "Billy", whose brother was dying of cancer, Kubler-Ross noted that the otherwise healthy boy intentionally injured himself, began to wet the bed, and misbehave in school in an attempt to gain attention. Billy was especially cruel to a handicapped fellow student.[2]

Abnormal behavior can also be seen in children who have lost a sibling suddenly and feel "forgotten" while their parents cope with the shock of such an event. It is not uncommon for child to have nightmares, become hyperactive or destructive, or do poorly in school. Having become temporarily anti-social, a child may lose friends, exacerbating his or her isolation at a time when they need someone to talk to the most. “The children need a friend, someone who will listen and talk to them clip_image007at this time. They need extra patience, tutoring, and support rather than ridiculous expectations like the all-too-frequently-heard remark, “You should be over that by now.”” [3]

Most experts agree that it is a mistake to exclude a child from the mourning process; even though the death of a sibling is a stunning event, it is a family affair that must be shared by all of its members. “A child wants to can be damaging to his emotional development to exclude him from the sorrows of life.” Families become closer and learn to grow from the “love and caring that surfaces during a crisis.”[4]

To ease the pain inherent in the death of a loved one, it helps to talk with the child about the meaning of death; explaining, according to the family's religious beliefs, what happens to the "person" after the body has ceased to function. Helpful activities could include “preparing a scrapbook that commemorates life with (the deceased); making sure the child has a picture...available; carrying out a project...related to one of the interests of the absent person.”[5]

Saying goodbye to a deceased child, even a stillborn infant, is a process that while it can be extremely emotional and difficult to endure, is a necessary first clip_image009step in the healing process. Family members should be allowed to rock their stillborn baby; sing a favorite lullaby, bathe the dead body and comb his or her hair, dress the child, and drive the loved one to the mortuary.
Siblings especially need time alone, preferably in the company of a parent, with their dead brother or sister to say their final farewell. This is the time for the parent to encourage and answer the many questions a child will inevitably have. Often, a child will sneak a favorite toy or other meaningful artifact into the coffin for the deceased to take with them on their journey.[6]
Some experts believe that the period of grief following the loss of a loved one can be separated into three distinct stages: shock, preoccupation with the deceased, and resolution.[7]

“Shock” can last anywhere from one day to two weeks and is described as a defense mechanism used by the mind to “protect the bereaved from experiencing the overwhelmingly painful reality of the loss too quickly or too intensely.” Family members feel frustrated, helpless, dazed, and confused while their mind adjusts to the loss.

“Preoccupation with the deceased” can last from three weeks to six months, and may clip_image011return on special occasions such as birthdays or anniversaries. This phase can be characterized by “vivid” nightmares, crying spells, and auditory or visual hallucinations in which the bereaved believes that they hear or see the deceased.
“Resolution” occurs when those close to the deceased begin to accept the loss as a part of life. They can once again remember, without an excessive amount of discomfort, the good times shared with the departed. Family members begin to rebuild their lives and move on, resuming favorite activities or discovering new ones.
Others hold that the period of mourning is individualistic and can not be ascribed to a timetable. Some people may cope with the death of a loved one rather quickly, while others may experience profound depression, guilt, and anger for as long as three years. “There are a number of psychological, social, and biological processes that interact and make it difficult to define a normal reaction to bereavement.”[8]
Kubler-Ross breaks down grieving into a 5-step process with distinct, linear stages:
1. Denial and Isolation
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
Coping with death is not an easy process for anyone who loved the deceased, no matter how good the advice or how knowledgeable the expert. The passing of a loved one should be marked with rituals and memorials that comfort those who are left to remember the soul who has left this world for planes unknown.

We may scream and cry, beat our chests and rend our clothes, or we may pretend to ourselves and others that it really doesn't hurt that bad. And whether our grief endures or is mercifully brief, in the end, we are left to deal with death in our own way.


Brown, J.T. & Stoudemire, G.A.
(1983) Normal and Pathological Grief. In Rohr, J. (Ed.).
(1987). Death and Dying: Opposing Viewpoints.
Minnesota - Greenhaven Press.
Joyce, C.
(1984). A Time for Grieving. In Rohr, J. (Ed.).
(1987). Death and Dying: Opposing Viewpoints.
Minnesota - Greenhaven Press.
Kubler-Ross, E.
(1983). On Children and Death.
New York - Macmillan Publishing Company.
Neeld, E.
(1990). Seven Choices
New York - Clarkson N. Potter Inc.
Raab, R.
(1983). Coping With Death.
New York - The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.
[1] - Kubler-Ross, 1983, p. 3
[2] - Kubler-Ross, 1983, p. 4
[3] - Kubler-Ross, 1983, pp. 104-105
[4] - Raab, 1983, p. 103
[5] - Neeld, 1990, pp. 42-44
[6] - Kubler-Ross, 1983, pp. 197-8
[7] - Brown, J.T., & Stoudemire, G.A., 1983, in Rohr, 1987, pp. 16-22
[8] - Joyce, C., 1984, in Rohr, 1987, pp. 23-26

Thursday, May 1, 2008


This country, the Greatest military and economic power on Earth since the Roman Empire ruled the western world, has been hijacked by men at the highest levels of government, industry, big business, big oil, and old money. The Beast, or more secularly, an Orwellian "Big Brother," is alive and well; cataloging our every purchase, scanning our lives, listening to our phone calls, reading our email, and logging our every keystroke, and even peering into our backyards from geosynchronous satellites deep in space.

Our very selves have been reduced to bar codes and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Device) chips – We are nothing more than Inventory in the eyes of the Powers That Be - and “We The People,” did not elect them. They hide in back rooms, and make deals mutually beneficial, with their enemies and ours, amassing power and wealth on the backs of the working classes from the bottom of the socio-economic scale to the top. Near the top anyway. Every four years they hold sham elections, forcing us to choose the lesser of two evils, laughing all the while because the outcome of the election has been long decided.

The time will come very soon when each and every one of us will be required to have an RFID chip implanted under our skin. "To combat terrorism," they will say," or "to keep our medical records private, our credit cards secure; to ward off identity theft." Already a hit in most major U.S. cities, “Trendy” Consumers/Barflies have had the chips installed/injected under the skin of their hand in lieu of carrying a purse or cash to pay their bar bill. The chip will take the place of driving licenses and Social Security cards. It will effectively be a National Identity Card. 

What's The RealID card? 

For those of you anxious to be easily filed, readily cross-referenced, and efficiently categorized, prepare to accept "RealID." Effective THIS YEAR - 2008, if you live or work in the United States, you'll need a federally approved ID card to travel on an airplane, open a bank account, collect Social Security payments, or take advantage of nearly any government service. The "RealID Act" was hidden inside an $82-billion military spending bill in 2005, which legislators dared not vote against lest the war effort stall for lack of funds.

What will be on the card? At a minimum: your name, birth date, sex, ID number, a digital photograph, iris scan, fingerprint, address, and a "common machine-readable technology" that Homeland Security will decide on. The card must also sport "physical security features designed to prevent tampering, counterfeiting, or duplication of the document for fraudulent purposes." Homeland Security is permitted to add additional requirements. Visit the manufacturer's website to see for yourself: DigiMarc - RealID Manufacturer.

That's right ladies and gentlemen – welcome to a future with its roots in the past. "Those who forget the past are condemned to repeat it," remember? We have forgotten the past, despite repeated protestations of "Never Again." When the German Republic’s legislature, the Reichstag, was burned to the ground Adolph Hitler used the incident to convince German citizens that there was a clear and present danger from Jews and Communists that would cost them their very lives if he were not given emergency powers. Before they realized what had happened, the democratically elected Chancellor of Germany has become a dictator, and the citizens of Germany were living in the most brutally repressive and genocidal regime in the history of the world.

There are clear parallels between the nascent Nazi Third Reich, and the United States in the 21st century. I don’t want to believe it myself, but we are just one terrorist attack away from martial law, and a modern dictatorship. Instead of yellow Stars of David for Jews, or pink triangles for homosexuals, the new means of instant identification will be first, the RealID card, and then the RFID implant. This is coming whether we want it or not; there is not a damned thing we can do to stop it.

What Happens If You Refuse?

Does anybody care to take a guess what will happen if you were to refuse to get tagged or chipped? You will be placed on a "Bad Actor's List" maintained by the Secret Service! It’s an interesting name “Secret Service,” it sounds ominous, even scary. The agency even has interesting initials. President Bush has issued a decree, excuse me, an "Executive Order," prohibiting persons on this list, including U.S. Citizens, from any transaction or travel.

The name of the list would be funny if it were not so serious. One might imagine it would include such people as Pauly Shore, or Pee Wee Herman. It is however, deadly serious. Chicago resident and American citizen Muhammed Salah knows all too well what happens if you are placed on the Secret Service Bad Actor’s list – he was the first U.S. citizen ever to be placed on the list. Salah cannot legally WORK to earn a paycheck to support his wife and 5 kids, travel anywhere, he may not SELL anything, his bank accounts are FROZEN, he cannot pay a DOCTOR, DRIVE, or BUY so much as a Slurpee at 7-11 without permission from the Treasury Department. By the way; he has never been charged with a crime, much less convicted of one. There IS a Beast out there that we really must fear - even without considering spiritual influences or context. – Paraphrased from U.S. News & World Report Sept 3rd, 2007, pp 32-33.

Our Wonderful Leadership:
General Colin Powell

I'm going to begin with former Secretary of State Colin Powell. In the run-up to "Operation Iraqi Freedom," which has very little to do with the Iraqi people or their freedom, Powell held up a vial of white powder of faux anthrax, trying to illustrate the dangers posed by Saddam Hussein and his alleged stockpiles of WMD's. General Powell is not a fool. He had access to the same bullshit intelligence analysis President Bush had, and he tried as hard as he could to come to a diplomatic resolution to the tensions between our countries.

As a real soldier, a conscientious soldier, Powell understood how horrible war is, and why it should ALWAYS be an absolute last resort - but he never had a chance. Bush was determined to force a war. As an honorable man, loyal to his country and its ideals, and respectful of the chain of command, Gen. Powell stood behind his President - and as an honorable man, a truthful man, and a man sworn to "defend The Constitution from all enemies, Foreign and Domestic," he asked the President to find someone else to do his lying in the future. He finished out the first term of Bush's administration so as not to embarrass his Commander-in-Chief, and returned to private life - with his honor intact. But it all goes downhill from here.

George W. Bush

Our President, George Walker Bush, is a buffoon and a liar. He serves only as a figurehead for the real power behind the throne. You may speculate among yourselves as to who, or what, that may be. Opinions vary, but my money is on a Defense/Big Oil consortium. Bush stated publicly at a political fund raiser in Texas that main reason he wanted Saddam Hussein dead was profoundly personal - revenge. "He is after all," Bush said, "the guy who tried to kill my dad." He just happens to have been fortunate that his personal reasons dovetailed nicely with the Defense/Big Oil/New World Order/Boogey-man-of-your-choice complex.

Also, the American people should know about George W. Bush's relationship with the family of Osama bin Laden. Salem bin Laden, Osama's older brother, was an investor in Arbusto Energy. – the Texas oil company started by George W. Bush. Arbusto means "Bush" in Spanish. How is it that the President of The United States is allowed to have a business relationship with the family of the world's most wanted terrorist without even minimal comment by the White House? Was there not any other person in the entire Middle East he could do business with? Are we that stupid to just let this go, or is the mainstream media instructed to not report anything that could possibly do irreparable damage to the administration?

I feel cheated and stupid, because at one time I believed in our government and what it stood for - Democracy , The Constitution, and the rule of law. I actually voted for him twice because I couldn't allow myself to believe that I had been duped. The government of The United States has been stolen from the people, and changed into something The Founders would not recognize, and would once again rebel against. We have stood silent for nearly eight years, and all we've gotten for our loyalty to the system is an unpopular war in Iraq, built on a tissue of lies, enmity from the entire world where we once had it's sympathy after 9/11, $3.50 a gallon gas, gargantuan national debt, and severely curtailed civil liberties.

 The Real "Tricky Dick"

Dick Cheney is a war profiteer plain and simple. His company, Halliburton, and subsidiary Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) is making hundreds of billions of dollars from the "War on Terror." As soon as his term as VP is over, he will go right back to Halliburton as Chairman of the Board – a post he left to become Vice-President. He should be impeached and jailed, but he never will be. In fact, the value of his Halliburton stock has risen 3,281% since the beginning of "Operation Iraqi Freedom.

After Desert Storm, under the first President Bush, then SecDef Cheney awarded Halliburton subsidiary Brown and Root an 8.5 million dollar contract to study the feasibility of supplementing American troops with civilian contractors, or mercenaries, if you prefer. After his government stint ended, Cheney became the Chairman and CEO of Halliburton from 1995 until 2000.
Halliburton, an energy company, and its subsidiary KBR, now control most aspects of daily life in Iraq from, now get this, The IMPORTATION of Gasoline, to private "Security Forces," to feeding troops deployed In Theater.

As of Feb. 7th, 2007, 98 KBR employees have died, and more than 430 have been wounded in hostile action. By 2005, 136 Titan (a KBR rival) employees had died in Iraq. Titan and KBR have stopped supplying casualty numbers. Many Iraqis have been killed in firefights with these mercenaries. Most of them probably deserved it, but there must have been innocents caught in the crossfire: it's one of the first rules of war – innocents will die – and until very recently, these “security contractors” faced absolutely NO SANCTIONS when non-combatants were killed.

One point of note, KBR charges the Pentagon $26 per soldier, per meal in the mess halls of Iraq & Afghanistan. The same people that charge $600 for a toilet seat, and $75 for one ice cube tray bring this remarkably cheap meal to our brave soldiers and Marines. A small refrigerator that can be had at Home Depot for $100 costs our government $2,000 because of no-bid contracts. It's no wonder we're in debt.

We American taxpayers are being fiscally sodomized by our government and the few privileged corporations that have been awarded those no-bid contracts. KBR keeps track of meals served not by counting soldiers, but by counting the disposable trays from which they eat. It's sandy and windy in the desert, so soldiers will often take 2 trays - 1 to cover their food. So KBR ends up charging $52 per soldier, per meal. I think McDonalds or even Sonic would be cheaper. On Sundays, KFC would do quite nicely. A $24 family combo would feed 4 soldiers, with a couple of wings left over.

Donald Rumsfeld

Former SecDef Donald Rumsfeld is a war criminal - and a dumbass to boot. The smartest people in the world were giving advice to the administration. "Though the U.S. State Department had conducted a comprehensive study of the problems of occupying Iraq, its conclusions were ignored by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld." - Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Does the administration expect us to believe that they didn't know disbanding the Iraqi army, and banning members of the Ba'ath Party from holding office or even working would create a ready-made, armed insurgency? Belonging to the Ba'ath Party was pretty much an obligation if one wished to hold a job in Saddam's Iraq; Just like belonging to the Nazi Party in WWII Germany was required of all working citizens - even if they didn't agree with the party's belief system. 

Disbanding these two entities created an unemployment nightmare overnight, so that if one wanted to feed one's family, joining the insurgency or militia was the only option. And with no security system to rely on, it was only a matter of time before 200 years worth of blood feuds between Sunni and Shia factions exploded into the bloodbath we are currently witnessing in Iraq.

 Are we to believe that Rumsfeld didn't know unguarded weapons depots would be inviting targets for terrorists, Sunni insurgents, and Shia militia looking to arm themselves? I'm sure the military told him of their concerns - they knew a civil war was coming; how could American war planners not know? They have unlimited resources at their disposal to plan for ANY contingency. They KNEW! In fact, they were counting on it! If the Iraqis were busy fighting each other, Rumsfeld and his minions reasoned, then they wouldn't be fighting us. Unfortunately, it didn't quite work out that way. The Shia, Sunni, AND foreign Arab terrorists all took their potshots at American and coalition forces in between their own sectarian battles.

The Carlyle Group

Since the start of the "War on Terror," the Carlyle Group has been making cash hand-over-fist. Members include former SecState James Baker, former British Prime Minister John Major, Philippine Pres. Fidel Ramos, and of course former POTUS George Herbert Walker Bush. For more, click this link =>

The Carlyle Group is a global private equity firm with $75.6 billion under management committed to 55 funds. Carlyle invests in buyouts, venture & growth capital, real estate and leveraged finance in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America focusing on aerospace & defense, automotive & transportation, consumer & retail, energy & power, financial services, health care, industrial, infrastructure, technology & business services and telecommunications & media.
Aerospace & Defense.
Auto & Transport - Keeping us dependent on Middle Eastern oil.
Consumer & Retail - Amassing Huge Databases w/RFID, tracking what we buy, and where we buy it.
Energy & Power - Record High Gas Prices & Profits.
Financial Services - Their banks hold our mortgages, and if we should default, the home reverts to them.
Industrial - Building Bombs, Missiles, Planes & Tanks.
Technology - 100% Targeting, and Spying technology, which is increasingly used to spy on US.
Telecom & Media - How Better to Spread Disinformation and Outright Lies?

And so The Carlyle Group has a finger in everybody's pie; a piece of action right off the top. Isn't there a law called RICO, and didn't the government kneecap the Mob with it? Yes they did, for doing EXACTLY what this group of privileged politicos is doing every single day. The firm - unofficially valued at $13.5bn - has taken on an added significance. Carlyle has become the thread which indirectly links American military policy in Afghanistan to the personal financial fortunes of its celebrity employees, not least of whom is the current president's father. Carlyle also provided another curious link to the Afghan crisis: among the firm's multi-million-dollar investors were members of the family of Osama bin Laden.

Big Oil

Big Oil, those who are sucking every penny they can out of our pockets, wanted the war in Iraq and the imminent war in Iran to destabilize and topple unfriendly governments (regime change) so they could maximize profits in the short term, and exert complete control over 2/3 of the world's known oil reserves in the future. A future by the way where there is NO MORE OIL – and no oil profits. 

What will the Saudis do for cash when their only revenue source literally dries up - sell sand? They need to profit NOW, so they can stay in power after the oil fields die. And so George Walker Bush, the President who owns an oil company, and walks hand-in-hand with Princes of the House of Saud – the same men he is in private business with - just makes sure they do.

For now, manufacturing the ILLUSION of instability in the middle east, Big Oil can run up prices at the pump all day and get away with it. And with a sympathetic President running interference with Congress, insuring that there will be no windfall profits tax, these multi-national, global monstrosities have absolutely no incentive to back down on the price of gas at the pump.

At the same time, the administration is beating the war drums over Iran's Nuclear ambitions. Granted, a nuclear armed terrorist state like Iran is an intolerable risk, but let's not be naive like we were in the run-up to "Operation Iraqi Freedom" when we were fed the lies of WMD's under Saddam's control. Iran sits atop a lake of black gold measured in the TRILLIONS of barrels. This oil alone would keep the world running for another 50 years - and Big Oil wants a slice of that pie!

Record Oil Profits

Exxon, the world's biggest publicly traded company by revenue posted net earnings of $39.5 billion on revenue of $377.6 billion last year, topping its previous profit record of $36.1 billion in 2005, which at the time was the largest for any U.S. company. Http://

Coming off three straight years of record profits, Chevron Corp. reported its earnings surged yet again to start 2007 as the oil company cashed in on lucrative refining margins that have contributed to high gasoline prices.
Chevron’s Record Profits -

Since George Bush became President in 2001, the top five oil companies in the United States have recorded profits of $464 billion through the first quarter of 2007:
· ExxonMobil: $158.5 billion
· Shell: $108.5 billion
· British Petroleum: $89.2 billion
· ChevronTexaco: $60.9 billion
· ConocoPhillips: $46.9 billion

Don't you wish you had some of that stock? On April 17th, the day this was posted, oil hit a record high of $115 bbl. This price is more than $60 higher than the same time last year, and $90 higher than when Bush took office, despite increased production, ample supply, and relative calm in OPEC and other oil producing nations. Heating oil now costs $305 bbl.

President Bush rejected calls to tax oil companies' record profits, but said he expects those companies to re-invest those profits in alternative fuels and new energy technologies - Like that's going to happen. The heads of those oil companies are testifying before Congress, trying to justify obscene profits in the face of relative calm in oil producing countries. They pay outrageous prices, claiming that they are at the mercy of Arab princes and the payments they demand for their dwindling supplies of crude oil.

The CIA and Bin Laden

The CIA funded Osama Bin Laden and the mujahidin in Afghanistan during the Russian occupation. This fact is not in dispute. It's what he did after the Russians were defeated that concerns us. What happened to all the money given to the various factions? Where are the Stinger missiles? And where is Bin Laden?

When Bin Laden was in Somalia, he was offered to the US, gift wrapped, with a bow on his head. But our government didn't want him. He was expelled, along with his cadre of fighters, to take up refuge in Afghanistan where he struck up an uneasy alliance with the Taliban.

Bin Laden could have been captured during the battle of Tora Bora, but he was left with a way out through Pakistan. Why? Because to unite a people behind a political agenda, there HAS to be a "Bogeyman." And a dead one just won't do. Hitler planned and executed the Reichstag fire to mobilize the German people behind him. In the light of the Northwoods Documents, is it really hard to believe that our government could kill its own citizens in order to consolidate power in the Executive Branch?

Is Iran Next?

The United States WILL attack Iran in the near future. Currently we have troops in Afghanistan and Iraq. Iran is flanked on both sides, East and West, by the most awesome and destructive military power the world has ever seen. OOPS! Did I say “Both” sides? I forgot – We also have troops in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, cutting off the Northern borders of Iran. To the South, there are 3 Carrier Strike Groups in the Persian Gulf. This flanks Iran on a fourth side, providing a platform from which to launch a devastating air campaign with cruise missiles and aircraft, and cuts off any water-borne supply route or means of escape.

(The Following List Needs To Be Updated, But It Was Correct 2 Months Ago)
Nimitz CSG 11, commanded by Rear Adm. John Terence Blake, includes the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Nimitz and embarked Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 11; Destroyer Squadron (DESRON) 23; the guided-missile cruiser USS Princeton (CG 59); and the guided-missile destroyers USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53), USS Higgins (DDG 76), USS Chafee (DDG 90), and USS Pinckney (DDG 91); Helicopter Anti-submarine Squadron Light (HSL) 49 "Scorpions," HSL-37 "Easy Riders," and Explosive Ordnance Disposal Unit 11, Det. 15.

The aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74) entered the Persian Gulf on March 27, escorted by the guided-missile cruiser USS Antietam (CG 54). This strike Group includes, CVW 9, Destroyer Squadron 21, USS Antietam (CG 54), the guided-missile destroyers USS O'Kane (DDG-77) and USS Preble (DDG 88) and the fast combat-support ship USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10).

The USS Enterprise Carrier Strike Group (CSG) commenced operations in the Persian Gulf Aug. 10, where they are currently deployed to support Maritime Security Operations (MSO) as well as Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom. More than 6,500 Sailors and Marines are assigned to each Carrier Strike Group. Each carrier group automatically comes with a USMC Battalion Landing Team of nearly 2,000 Marines stationed on an LHA, or LHD (a small VSTOL carrier), and one or two submarines.

The primary missions of the submarines (SSGN) will be land attack and Special Operations Forces (SOF) insertion and support. Secondary missions will be the traditional attack submarine missions of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), battle space preparation, and sea control. These submarines are EACH armed with up to 154 Tomahawk® or Tactical Tomahawk® land attack, Nuclear Capable missiles. They will have the ability to carry and support a team of 66 SOF personnel for up to 90 days at a time.

Additionally, the US base on Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean is capable of housing, resupply, and refueling B-52's which can each launch up to 20 cruise missiles or drop 70,000 lbs of mixed ordinance. B-1 bombers are also based here. -